Biocarburants, agrocarburants, biocombustibles, BtL, carburants alternatifs non fossiles...4 kg d'herbe sèche 1kg de pétrole => Grégoire Kaplan

Huile végétale brute, diester, bio-éthanol ou autres biocarburants ou combustibles d'origine végétale...
dedeleco
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par dedeleco » 17/01/12, 01:15

Pour ceux qui croient que le pétrole va disparaitre, il existe plein de moyens d'en faire avec le soleil, et même directement avec une bactérie microalgue capable de contenir 85% du poids de son corps en pétrole parfait, identique à celui des puits pétroliers, sans aucune transformation nécessaire, de plus sans pollutions comme du soufre des puits de pétrole.

Il suffit de cultiver dans de l'eau dans des tubes au soleil et de retirer le pétrole quasi pur formé par les algues sans transformation pratiquement .
Les pays désertiques pétroliers avec plein de soleil continueront à nous fournir du pétrole, avec des tubes ou mares de culture de ces algues. !!

On connait les microalgues qui font du pétrole directement Botryococcus braunii connue comme une botryococcenes, qui remplissent leur corps de pétrole avec 85% de leur poids sec, enfouies ensuite dans la terre, idéal pour faire du pétrole, mais elles se développent 8 fois plus lentement que les autre algues, ce qui devrait permettre de les utiliser en étant un peu moins pressé :
http://www.physorg.com/news187634357.html
http://www.physorg.com/news187634357.html

races of the green algae typically "accumulate hydrocarbons from to 30 percent to 40 percent of their dry weight, and are capable of obtaining hydrocarbon contents up to 86 percent of their dry weight.

The fuels derived from B. braunii hydrocarbons are chemically identical to gasoline, diesel and kerosene," Devarenne said. "Thus, we do not call them biodiesel or bio-gasoline; they are simply diesel and gasoline

Scientists do groundwork for genetic mapping of algae biofuel species
Using green algae to produce hydrocarbon oil for biofuel production is nothing new; nature has been doing so for hundreds of millions of years, according a Texas AgriLife Research scientist.

"Oils from the green algae Botryococcus braunii can be readily detected in petroleum deposits and coal deposits suggesting that B. braunii has been a contributor to developing these deposits and may be the major contributor," said Dr. Timothy Devarenne, AgriLife Research scientist with the Texas A&M University department of biochemistry and biophysics. "This means that we are already using these oils to produce gasoline from petroleum."

It's not just a gee-whiz science trivia, Devarenne said. B. braunii is a prime candidate for biofuel production because some races of the green algae typically "accumulate hydrocarbons from to 30 percent to 40 percent of their dry weight, and are capable of obtaining hydrocarbon contents up to 86 percent of their dry weight.

"As a group, algae may be the only photosynthetic organism capable of producing enough biofuel to meet transportation fuel demands."

Devarenne is part of a team comprised of other scientists with AgriLife Research, the University of Kentucky and the University of Tokyo trying to understand more about B. braunii, including its genetic sequence and its family history.

"Without understanding how the cellular machinery of a given algae works on the molecular level, it won't be possible to improve characteristics such as oil production, faster growth rates or increased photosynthesis," Devarenne said.

Like most green algae, B. braunii is capable of producing great amounts of hydrocarbon oils in a very small land area.

B. braunii algae show particular promise not just because of their high production of oil but also because of the type of oil they produce, Devarenne said. While many high-oil-producing algae create vegetable-type oils, the oil from B. braunii, known as botryococcenes, are similar to petroleum.

"The fuels derived from B. braunii hydrocarbons are chemically identical to gasoline, diesel and kerosene," Devarenne said. "Thus, we do not call them biodiesel or bio-gasoline; they are simply diesel and gasoline. To produce these fuels from B. braunii, the hydrocarbons are processed exactly the same as petroleum is processed and thus generates the exact same fuels. Remember, these B. braunii hydrocarbons are a main constituent of petroleum. So there is no difference other than the millions of years petroleum spent underground."

But, a shortcoming of B. braunii is its relatively slow growth rate. While the algae that produce 'vegetable-type' oils may double their growth every six to 12 hours, B. braunii's doubling rate is about four days, he said.

"Thus, getting large amounts of oil from B. braunii is more time consuming and thus more costly," Devarenne said. "So, by knowing the genome sequence we can possibly identify genes involved in cell division and manipulate them to reduce the doubling rate."

Despite these characteristics and economic potential of algae, only six species of algae have had their genomes fully sequenced and annotated, Devarenne said. And B. braunii is not one of the six.

Devarenne and his colleagues have done some of the groundwork in better understanding B. braunii and sequencing its genome.

They are working the Berkeley strain of the B race of B. braunii, so named because it was first isolated at the University of California at Berkeley. The team has determined the genome size and an estimate of the B race's guanine-cytosine content, both of which are essential to mapping the full genome, he said. There are also races A and L of B. braunii, but they were not looked at by the team.

Guanine-cytosine bonds are one of base pairs composing DNA structure. Adenine-thymine is the other possible base pair.

"Genomes with high guanine-cytosine content can be difficult to sequence and knowing the guanine-cytosine content can help to assess the amount of resources needed for genome sequencing," Devarenne said.

The team determined B. braunii's genome size to be 166.2 ± 2.2 million base pairs, Devarenne said. The size of the human genome is about 3.1 billion base pairs. That of the house mouse is also about 3 billion base pairs. But the B. braunii genome size is larger than any of the other six previously sequenced green algae genomes.

The team also looked at the phylogenetic placement of B. braunii - where it belongs in the family tree of similar algae species. Though they knew from the work of other scientists that the B race of B. braunii was distinct from other races of B. braunii, there was some question that the genetic samples of the B race used in a previous study by other scientists might be contaminated by another algal species.

To check this, they used a process called reverse transcription to isolate genes from a pure culture of the B race of B. braunii, and then mapped those genes to confirm the relationship of the B race to other races of B. braunii.

"Our results support the original Berkeley DNA sequence used for phylogenetic placement was from a contaminating algae," Devarenne said. "And our study places the B race of B. braunii in the correct location on the 'algal family tree'."

The actual genome sequencing and mapping will be performed by DOE's Joint Genome Institute.

"We've submitted genomic DNA from B. braunii for JGI to use in sequencing, but that hasn't begun yet," he said.
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dedeleco
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par dedeleco » 17/01/12, 01:32

Comme il faut du CO2 pour bien nourrir ces algues, un moyen pas cher d'extraire le CO2 de l'air pour diminuer sa concentration et cultiver mieux les algues, un gel de silice très fin imprégné de polyethylenimine capture le CO2 de l'air même humide et avec une faible concnetration :

New materials remove CO2 from smokestacks, tailpipes and even the air
http://www.physorg.com/news/2012-01-mat ... s-air.html

Scientists are reporting discovery of an improved way to remove carbon dioxide — the major greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming — from smokestacks and other sources, including the atmosphere. Their report on the process, which achieves some of the highest carbon dioxide removal capacity ever reported for real-world conditions where the air contains moisture, appears in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
Alain Goeppert, G. K. Surya Prakash, chemistry Nobel Laureate George A. Olah and colleagues explain that controlling emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the biggest challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. They point out that existing methods for removing carbon dioxide from smokestacks and other sources, including the atmosphere, are energy intensive, don't work well and have other drawbacks. In an effort to overcome such obstacles, the group turned to solid materials based on polyethylenimine, a readily available and inexpensive polymeric material.

Their tests showed that these inexpensive materials achieved some of the highest carbon dioxide removal rates ever reported for humid air, under conditions that stymie other related materials. After capturing carbon dioxide, the materials give it up easily so that the CO2 can be used in making other substances, or permanently isolated from the environment. The capture material then can be recycled and reused many times over without losing efficiency. The researchers suggest the materials may be useful on submarines, in smokestacks or out in the open atmosphere, where they could clean up carbon dioxide pollution that comes from small point sources like cars or home heaters, representing about half of the total CO2 emissions related to human activity.

More information: Carbon Dioxide Capture from the Air Using a Polyamine Based Regenerable Solid Adsorbent, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133 (50), pp 20164–20167. DOI: 10.1021/ja2100005

Abstract
Easy to prepare solid materials based on fumed silica impregnated with polyethylenimine (PEI) were found to be superior adsorbents for the capture of carbon dioxide directly from air. During the initial hours of the experiments, these adsorbents effectively scrubbed all the CO2 from the air despite its very low concentration. The effect of moisture on the adsorption characteristics and capacity was studied at room temperature. Regenerative ability was also determined in a short series of adsorption/desorption cycles.
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dedeleco
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par dedeleco » 17/01/12, 01:59

Enfin pour convertir de la matière organique d'algues ou autres d'herbes comme Kaplan, en fioul, un catalyseur solide qui le fait directement simplement avec de la matière végétale ordinaire comme celle d'algues, pour 40% moins cher que les autres méthodes, sans pollution des eaux.
Donc nous devrions ne plus manquer de pétrole sans augmenter le CO2 vu la quantité sans limites d'algues, avec un rendement pour la même surface de terre, 100 à 300 fois celui pour le soja, et ceci sans réduire les terres agricoles, avec des algues cultivées dans les mers ou déserts, pour en faire du pétrole :


Economical, eco-friendly process for making biodiesel fuel from algae

http://www.physorg.com/news157272282.html
Chemists reported development of what they termed the first economical, eco-friendly process to convert algae oil into biodiesel fuel — a discovery they predict could one day lead to U.S. independence from petroleum as a fuel.

One of the problems with current methods for producing biodiesel from algae oil is the processing cost, and the New York researchers say their innovative process is at least 40 percent cheaper than that of others now being used. Supply will not be a problem: There is a limitless amount of algae growing in oceans, lakes, and rivers, throughout the world.

Another benefit from the "continuously flowing fixed-bed" method to create algae biodiesel, they add, is that there is no wastewater produced to cause pollution.

"This is the first economical way to produce biodiesel from algae oil," according to lead researcher Ben Wen, Ph.D., vice president of United Environment and Energy LLC, Horseheads, N.Y. "It costs much less than conventional processes because you would need a much smaller factory, there are no water disposal costs, and the process is considerably faster."

A key advantage of this new process, he says, is that it uses a proprietary solid catalyst developed at his company instead of liquid catalysts used by other scientists today. First, the solid catalyst can be used over and over. Second, it allows the continuously flowing production of biodiesel, compared to the method using a liquid catalyst. That process is slower because workers need to take at least a half hour after producing each batch to create more biodiesel. They need to purify the biodiesel by neutralizing the base catalyst by adding acid. No such action is needed to treat the solid catalyst, Wen explains.

He estimates algae has an "oil-per-acre production rate 100-300 times the amount of soybeans, and offers the highest yield feedstock for biodiesel and the most promising source for mass biodiesel production to replace transportation fuel in the United States." He says that his firm is now conducting a pilot program for the process with a production capacity of nearly 1 million gallons of algae biodiesel per year. Depending on the size of the machinery and the plant, he said it is possible that a company could produce up to 50 million gallons of algae biodiesel annually.

Wen also says that the solid catalyst continuous flow method can be adapted to mobile units so that smaller companies wouldn't have to construct plants and the military could use the process in the field.
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Obamot
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Dedeleco, Oméga -3

par Obamot » 17/01/12, 06:48

dedeleco a écrit :rien à voir avec le pétrole avec de l'herbe.


Alors pourquoi tu le postes de façon erronée si ça n'a rien à voir:

Obamot a écrit :
dedeleco poste des liens avec des références erronées et a écrit :Eux ont du pétrole à partir d'algues industriel qui fonctionne :

«[...] Une tonne de nutriments de type Oméga 3, à titre d'exemple»


On ne devrait jamais dire (ou reporter sans lire) la formulation « de type oméga 3 », archi fausse!

Car dans cette configuration bénéfique «CIS» (qui veut dire "du même côté"), c'est-à-dire que leurs deux atomes d'hydrogène se trouvent être "du même côté" du plan formé par la double liaison carbone-carbone, on ne peut rien dire d'autre que:

oméga -3

Image

Puisque l'on commence à compter à partir de la fin -1, -3, -6, -9 ...

C'est vraiment le "b"_"a" ... ba :shock: parce qu'autrement: «TRANS», c'est tout le contraire: nuisible pour la santé !


Et pourquoi tu postes des trucs auxquels tu ne piges que dalle...

... ton herbe au pétrole, c'est de la bonne ! Image
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dedeleco
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par dedeleco » 17/01/12, 13:34

Obamot a fumé beaucoup avec de l'oméga +3 et pollue ce forum avec sa fumée et ses obsessions, au lieu d'aller respirer le bon air au soleil de ses belles montagnes Suisses, montées en peau de phoque à 3000m et redescendues en ski, très efficace pour la santé et que je lui conseille fortement de faire.
Ainsi, il sera moins énervé, au lieu de rester emmitouflé devant son ordinateur, pour ne pas attraper de rhume, obsédé par ses omégas+-3, que plus jeune, il ne mangeait jamais avec des aliments déséquilibrés, et qu'un docteur a du lui expliquer, qu'il devait manger les bons omegas, pour ne plus être malade !!
Pour manger normal, je n'ai jamais eu besoin de docteur, ni d'un compteur de omega-3, à chaque bouchée, ou à chaque post sur econologie.

Il n' a rien compris au pétrole solaire moins cher, que le baril des puits de pétrole, obtenu à partir de tout déchet végétal, au lieu de le jeter et bruler n'importe où en plein air, dans les liens et infos de ce forum, pollué par Obamot, obsédé par ses omegas.

C'est un moyen efficace, rentable de stopper la montée du CO2, sans rien changer à nos habitudes de vie en utilisant le soleil.
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Obamot
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par Obamot » 17/01/12, 13:37

Tu te fais du mal tout seul !

Lorsque tu ignores quelque chose, dis simplement:
«je ne sais pas»... «expliquez-moi»...

Et tout le monde comprendra.
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